Edited by: Noisrevbus on 31/05/2011 16:57:28
The standings and security system is a djungle and a 2003 dinosaur that could definately use some developer attention and a massive overhaul to be made more intuitive and flexible, to liven up lowsec in particular.
There's red agression, yellow agression, flashy by security status, how status/standing relate to different systems and the factions that own them, faction standing, corporate standing etc etc.
Throw certain standings issues related to FW into the mix and it becomes even more complicated and heavy-handed.
It's pretty crap overall.
To answer your question: shooting a player in lowsec gives you a temporary (1min) agression where you are not allowed to dock or use gates, another temporary (15min) red agression that let players attack you with impunity, lowsec gate- and station guns will fire at you (yet moving into a lowsec region held by another faction will remedy that, into a yellow temporary timer), Concord will murder you if you hop into highsec (0.5+) and your overall security status will drop by a predetermined modifier (often around 0.01 for agression alone, without a kill or a podkill). If your total security status drop below a sliding figure (-0.2 to -5) to the security status of a certain system (1.0 to 0.5) you will be agressed by factional NPC but not Concord, unless Concord happen to hold SOV in that particular system (in that case, you will be murdered). If your security status go below -5 that will happen in any higsec system, yet gates or stations in lowsec will not shoot at you simply because of status (only if you have an active temporary agression timer), other players can still shoot you with impunity (beyond the 1min no-gate/dock) though.
Grinding missions against a certain empire-faction NPC (eg., Caldari Navy) will lower your faction standing (Caldari) but not your corporate standing (Caldari Navy), once it drops below a certain figure (-5?) the local highsec navy NPC will target you, yet Concord will not. This also mean that you can essentially be +10 to Caldari navy and -10 to Caldari faction (don't worry though, there are lowsec agents). If you want to remedy faction standings you can't do corporate appeasement, instead you need to do special missions; storyline missions, datacenters, circulars etc. If you want to remedy security status, you need to specificly shoot pirate-faction NPC and standing is revised based on NPC top quality kill / 20 min / system (in missions, or in low, npc null or sov null space in belts or around gates).
See, easy isn't it? ~CCP~